Understanding Your Results

If both scores are near this end of the spectrum, not only are your lifestyle habits complimenting your overall health, but your blood is also reflecting positive signs of health.

When your scores are in the Room to Improve, it shows there is an opportunity to implement lifestyle changes to move closer to the ‘Optimal’ end of the scale. Your lifestyle recommendations can help you identify where to focus next.

A blood test score in this range indicates that your blood biomarkers are not reflective of a healthy lifestyle. When daily habit scores are in this range it indicates that this aspect of your lifestyle is negatively impacting your health.

Blood test

Your blood test score indicates how your body is currently responding to the quality of your lifestyle. It is made up of a group of biomarkers that are related to the quality of a specific lifestyle category. For example, your nutrition score is determined based on a group of markers that are associated with diet quality and the outcomes of diet quality on health.

An optimal score indicates that the blood markers are reflecting good diet quality. As a score heads to the right (towards the red end) it indicates that the markers that we measure are not optimal. Improving lifestyle habits and sticking to these over the long term will help you improve your overall health.

Habits Survey

Your Habits Survey score is calculated from the answers you provided in your lifestyle questionnaire. It is based on a set of well established guidelines that relate to the quality of your lifestyle. For example, your exercise score is calculated by looking at your minutes of exercise a week and strength training sessions compared to the recommended levels of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (or 75 minutes of intense exercise) and 2 strength training sessions a week.
An optimal Habits Survey score means that your current lifestyle habits for this category are considered to be healthy.

A Habits Survey score in the “room to improve” area means that there are aspects of your lifestyle that are below the healthy amount. A Habits Survey score in the needs attention section means you are not exhibiting healthy patterns in your lifestyle. We suggest looking at the lifestyle recommendations in your dashboard for ways to improve your lifestyle.

What is a biomarker?

A biomarker is a naturally occurring element used to indicate and measure health and disease. Biomarkers serve multiple purposes. They can be used to identify an existing disease or to predict the likelihood a disease developing in the future.

Your WellBeing report contains an analysis of the biomarkers found in the blood. Drop Bio Health uses an analytical technology designed to track blood markers that exist in very low concentrations and play a role in many areas of health, including mental health, fertility, nutrition, and chronic disease development.

Biomarkers play an essential role in health. This is because they are objective, quantifiable characteristics of biological processes. It is interesting to note, however, that blood biomarkers do not necessarily correlate with people's perceived health and sense of wellbeing.
WellBeing analyses over 30 different blood biomarkers from finger-prick blood samples and compares them with self-reported daily habits to help you address the gap between how you feel and what is actually happening in your body. Your WellBeing report will also provide health insights to empower you to understand biological signals, manage your lifestyle and, most importantly, age healthily.

Your report contains an analysis of the biomarkers related to alcohol consumption, energy, exercise, nutrition & diet, inflammation, stress and sleep. Consult the list below to learn more about their role in your health.

Biomarkers measured in WellBeing

Adipsin

Also known as Complement Factor D, Adipsin is secreted by fat cells (adipocytes), and has a crucial role in maintaining fat tissue. Adipisin helps to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose.

Alpha-Fetoprotein

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is primarily made by the fetus and is usually only detectable in adults at very low levels. Elevated levels of AFP are sometimes detected in the blood when a person has certain cancers, and in some people with liver disease.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a protein produced in brain cells (neurons), where it helps to support their survival and function. Low levels of BDNF have been associated with conditions such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.

C-Peptide

C-peptide is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas during the processing of insulin. Levels of circulating C-peptide are increased in Type II diabetes and insulin resistance, and decreased in Type I diabetes.

C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant which can be used as a general screening aid for inflammatory diseases, infections, and neoplastic diseases. In addition to its usual value as an acute phase reactant, CRP in large concentrations predicts progression of erosions in rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated serum CRP is characteristic of bacterial, but not viral, meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Elevated concentrations of CRP are associated with a risk of myocardial infarction in patients with stable and unstable angina. CRP can predict the risk of first myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in apparently healthy individuals.

Chemerin

Chemerin can stimulate movement of specific immune cells to sites of inflammation. Glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes have been associated with altered Chemerin levels. It is also thought to correlate with body mass index, plasma triglyceride levels and blood pressure.

Cortisol

Cortisol is a hormone released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. Cortisol increases blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and has an immunosuppressive action. Synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) is used in the treatment of allergies and inflammation. Altered metabolism of cortisol may play a role in obesity, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance.

Eotaxin-3

Eotaxin-3 stimulates the movement of specific immune cells to sites of inflammation. It is enhanced in allergic inflammation, and thought to play an important role in allergy and asthma.

Estradiol

Estradiol is an estrogen steroid hormone, the major female sex hormone and regulator of the female reproductive cycle. Estradiol is important in the development and maintenance of mammary glands, uterus, and vagina during puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy. Levels are much lower in males than females, but are still important in normal body function. Estradiol also has important effects in other tissues including bone, fat, skin, liver, and the brain, and is involved in the growth of breast and other cancers.

Fibroblast growth factor 23

FGF-23 is produced by bone cells in response to high circulating phosphate levels or elevated parathyroid hormone. It is involved in embryonic development, cell growth, tissue repair, tumor growth and is overproduced by some tumors. Levels of FGF-23 in the blood increase during early stages of kidney malfunction and may also play a role in insulin resistance.

Growth/Differentiation Factor 15

GDF-15 plays a role in controlling inflammation and cell death. GDF-15 levels can be increased by cardiovascular events triggering oxidative stress, including atherosclerosis. Increased circulating GDF-15 concentrations have been linked to an enhanced risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor

Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) regulates the growth of a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types.

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a protein that is implicated in the control of a number of cellular processes involved in inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.

Interferon gamma

Interferon gamma (IFN gamma, IFN-γ) is an important regulator of our immune response. It is a chemical messenger produced by some immune cells (T cells and Natural Killer cells) in response to infection and inflammation and controls the action of other immune cells (macrophages) and antibody production. IFN-gamma has a role in many types of immune response, such as inflammation, antibody production and viral infection.

Interleukin 6 receptor alpha

Interleukin 6 receptor alpha (IL6Ra) plays an important role in the immune response by controlling the behaviour of various immune cells. Altered levels of IL6Ra has been implicated in many diseases, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune diseases and prostate cancer.

Interleukin-1 beta

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta, IL-1ß) is produced in response to inflammatory agents, infections, or microbial endotoxins. It plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses, and is implicated in many other aspects of normal bodily function and diseases.

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a member of the IL-1 family, which acts as a natural IL-1 inhibitor. The balance between IL-1 and IL-1ra plays an important role in the course of various inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.

Interleukin-10

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a regulator of immune cells. IL-10 indirectly suppresses tumor growth of certain tumors by blocking the activity of immune cells called macrophages.

Interleukin-17

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a chemical messenger that recruits specific immune cells (monocytes and neutrophils) to sites of inflammation.

Interleukin-2 receptor antagonist

Interleukin 2 Receptor Alpha (IL2RA) is produced by a number of different cells in the immune system. IL2R deficiency has been associated with immunodeficiency. Patients with COVID-19 have significantly elevated levels of IL2R in their blood.

Interleukin-4

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is produced by activated T-cells in response to infection, and sends a chemical signal to antibodies producing B-cells. It has been implicated in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Interleukin-6

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a chemical messenger released by some immune cells in response to a number of stimuli. It is involved in elevating body temperature during fever, and signals B-cells to start producing antibodies. IL- 6 is usually not detected in normal serum, and elevated levels are observed in inflammatory processes, such as infections, vascular diseases, alcoholic liver disease and chronic renal failure.

Kidney Injury Molecule-1

Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) occurs on the surface of injured kidney cells. It is also produced at low levels by some T cells. In an injured kidney, KIM-1 levels are increased more than any other protein.

Leptin

Leptin is a hormone produced predominantly in fat cells and plays an important role in the regulation of body weight by acting on brain regions controlling hunger, body temperature, and energy expenditure. Increased leptin levels are seen in obese individuals, and leptin levels have been shown to change under certain hormonal conditions.

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2) is a chemical messenger that helps recruit immune cells to sites of injury and infection. MCP-1 has been found in the joints of people with rheumatoid arthritis where it may serve to perpetuate inflammation in the joints. MCP-1 is also elevated in the urine of lupus patients as a sign of inflammation of the kidney.

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (also known as Lipocalin-2)

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL - also known as Lipocalin-2) is a regulator of the innate immune response to bacterial infection,where it is thought to slow bacterial growth through binding iron. NGAL has also been implicated in other conditions such such as cancer and allergy. NGAL levels rise in urine and blood within 2 hours of renal injury.

Osteopontin

Osteopontin (OPN) acts as chemical messenger in the immune system, partly by regulating the levels of other regulators such as IFN-gamma and IL-10. Decreased concentrations of OPN have been documented in the urine from patients with renal stone disease compared with normal individuals.

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a key regulator of blood clotting. Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been observed in deep vein thrombosis, heart attack and sepsis, as well as in normal pregnancy.

Progesterone

Progesterone is a steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle and pregnancy. In women, progesterone levels rise after ovulation and are elevated during the luteal phase. It also plays an important role in the control of breast cancer cell growth.

RANKL

RANKL is produced in a wide range of cell types and tissues. It is a regulator of various cell types in the immune system, an important regulator of bone density, and has been suggested to play role in the spread of some cancers. Increased production of RANKL is implicated in a variety of degenerative bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

ST2

ST2 signals the presence and severity of heart tissue remodelling which occurs during heart attack or acute coronary syndrome, making it a potential biomarker of cardiac stress.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein that binds to sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol). These sex hormones circulate in the bloodstream bound mostly to SHBG, which forms an important way of regulating their action. SHBG levels are controlled by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), androgens, estrogen and thyroxine. Low SHBG is often seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, and hypothyroidism. Conditions with high SHBG include pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and anorexia nervosa.

Testosterone

A steroid hormone, Testosterone, is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being, controlling a wide variety of functions including libido, energy, immune function and protection against osteoporosis.

Thyroxine (T4)

Thyroxine (T4) is one of the two main thyroid hormones, which regulate almost every aspect of our body's function, including metabolism, growth and development, body temperature, and heart rate.

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Triiodothyronine (T3) is one of the two main thyroid hormones which regulate almost every aspect of our body's function, including metabolism, growth and development, body temperature, and heart rate.

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha

Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is secreted by immune cells called macrophages. It is a potent driver of fever and a regulator of cell behaviour. It also appears to be an important regulator of cell growth and death in various cancer types.

References

Source: “What are biomarkers?"