Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a protein produced in brain cells (neurons). BDNF is important for the survival and growth of neurons and is involved in memory and learning functions. It also regulates mood, glucose, and energy metabolism. Low levels of BDNF are linked to brain fog and poor concentration. Regular physical activity and stress management can be helpful in improving brain function and reducing the risk of mental illness.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is produced by the liver and measures inflammation in the body. High levels can be caused by infections, autoimmune conditions, or organ damage, and symptoms include weight gain, pain, fever, chills, nausea, muscle stiffness, exhaustion, and breathing difficulties. Balancing nutrition, exercise, and quality sleep can reduce inflammation risk and aid recovery from infection and illness.
Chemerin is a molecule produced in fat tissue. It plays a crucial role in immune function and regulating insulin secretion. Elevated Chemerin levels are linked to obesity and inflammation. With high levels, you may experience symptoms similar to insulin resistance which include increased thirst and frequent urination. Balanced nutrition, regular exercise and reducing alcohol can help prevent obesity and reduce the risk of developing heart disease, diabetes and liver disease.
Cortisol is a hormone released by the body in response to stress. Cortisol regulates energy, blood pressure, metabolism, inflammation and the sleep-wake cycle. With high Cortisol levels, you may experience weight gain, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and sleep problems. Low levels are associated with weight loss, muscle weakness and mood swings. Balanced nutrition, regular exercise, quality sleep and avoiding too much caffeine can help to regulate the stress impact on your body.
Growth/Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15) is a protein that regulates inflammation, cell repair, growth, and ageing. High levels can indicate inflammation and result in symptoms like pain, fever, and nausea. Low levels are typical in young, healthy individuals. Managing stress, balanced nutrition, and physical fitness can help reduce the risk of health problems associated with high GDF-15.
Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is a crucial protein involved in cell protection, organ repair and development, and inflammation. High levels of HGF indicate stress on cells, while low levels may reduce cell protection. High HGF levels can cause symptoms such as breathlessness, nausea, and chest pain. A balanced diet and avoiding excessive alcohol intake can help maintain overall organ health.
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a protein involved in cellular functions, including inflammation, immunity, and wound healing. Normal levels are low. High levels can occur due to injury or metabolic stress. High ICAM-1 levels can lead to symptoms of inflammation such as fever, pain and nausea. Maintaining a balanced diet, avoiding high intakes of alcohol, and getting quality sleep can reduce the risk of diseases and support injury recovery.
Interferon Gamma (IFNG) is produced by immune cells in response to infection and inflammation and is involved in controlling antibody production. High IFNG may indicate inflammation. Symptoms associated with low levels include high thirst, frequent urination, slow healing and blurred vision. A healthy balanced diet, regular exercise and reduced alcohol consumption can lower the risk of many diseases and improve general immunity
Interleukin 6 receptor alpha (IL6Ra) controls the behaviour of some immune cells, regulating mood and stress. A healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet, physical activity, and stress management can help support your immune system and reduce the risk of inflammatory diseases.
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a protein secreted by various cells (including immune cells), and it regulates inflammation. Low levels can lead to excessive inflammation and an increased risk of autoimmune diseases with symptoms like joint pain and skin lesions. Maintaining a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol intake can help reduce the risk and support the immune system.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a potent anti-inflammatory protein essential for immune responses to pathogens and for preventing tissue damage. High levels may indicate inflammation and cause symptoms like pain, fever, energy loss, and appetite. Low utilization can lead to autoimmune conditions. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol intake, and having a balanced diet and exercise can support immune health.
Interleukin-17 (IL-17A) is a chemical messenger produced by T helper cells. It plays a crucial role in immune responses. High levels of IL-17A may indicate infection or illness, which could result in fever and pain. High IL-17A can also lead to autoimmune disorders. Taking good care of your health through balanced nutrition and fitness can support your immune system and its response to illness or infection.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a chemical messenger released by immune cells. It is involved in producing antibodies and in raising body temperature during fever. IL-6 is not usually detectable in the blood of healthy people, so high levels may indicate inflammation. Taking steps to maintain your health is important for supporting your immune system and the health of your liver and kidneys. This includes physical activity, quality sleep, balanced nutrition and reducing alcohol.
Leptin is a hormone produced predominantly in fat cells regulating hunger, feeling of satiation and balancing food intake and energy use. Low levels are rare and can cause overeating, while high levels are linked to poor sleep and leptin resistance, resulting in increased hunger and appetite. To reduce excess leptin and improve sensitivity, maintain a balanced diet, quality sleep and regular exercise.
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2) is a chemical messenger in immune responses. High levels indicate injury, infection, and kidney inflammation and lead to symptoms like fever, pain, respiratory distress, and joint stiffness. High MCP-1 indicates a pro-inflammatory response. Reducing alcohol intake and adopting a healthy diet help support the immune system and improve overall health.
Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL - also known as Lipocalin-2) is involved in regulating the immune system. It appears to slow bacterial growth by binding iron. NGAL levels rise in response to kidney dysfunction. Symptoms of kidney stress can include blood in the urine, swollen feet and ankles, excess fatigue and nausea. High levels of NGAL also indicate an imbalanced immune response. Reducing salt and alcohol intake combined with balanced nutrition and drinking more water can help you care for your kidneys and your health in general.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein involved in regulating bone tissue mineralisation, calcium crystal buildup, and immune responses. It is particularly important for older adults and women undergoing menopause because of this biomarker's role in bone density. High levels are associated with low bone density and low levels with kidney stones. To maintain healthy bones and reduce the risk of diseases, a balanced diet and regular exercise are necessary.
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a protein that regulates blood clotting. In healthy individuals, PAI-1 concentrations are low. Deficient levels can cause excessive bleeding and slow wound healing, as the ability to form clots is impaired. High levels may be associated with clotting issues. Treatment may be necessary, but reducing alcohol intake, avoiding smoking, balanced nutrition, and stress management can help reduce the risk of clotting disorders like stroke and deep vein thrombosis.
Progesterone is a hormone essential for regulating the menstrual cycle and pregnancy in women and producing testosterone in men. Low levels in women may cause infertility and low mood. Low levels in men may cause hair loss and erectile dysfunction. High levels in women may cause anxiety and depression. High levels in men may cause higher estrogen and depression. A healthy diet and exercise can improve health, energy, and mood and reduce the risk of heart disease.
ST2 is useful as a biomarker of heart health. Heart dysfunction symptoms may include chest pain, feeling weak or faint, pain or numbness in the arms, shortness of breath, fatigue and swollen limbs. Improving your fitness through regular exercise, a balanced diet, quitting smoking and reducing alcohol intake can help prevent heart disease and cardiac stress and reduce your risk of heart failure.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) affects the bioactive level of sex hormones. Low levels in women may lead to weight gain, increased body hair and irregular periods. In men, it may cause infertility and erectile dysfunction. High SHBG in women is linked to decreased libido, memory loss and irregular periods. In men, it can lead to infertility, low libido and reduced bone and muscle mass. Regular exercise, quality sleep, balanced nutrition, and stress management can help manage symptoms.
Testosterone is a male sex hormone involved in libido, energy, immunity and protection against osteoporosis. Elevated levels in men can lead to fertility problems and aggression, while in women, it can cause symptoms like thinning hair and infertility. Testosterone levels usually reduce with age. Low levels can cause low libido, weakened muscles and impotence in men. Improving testosterone levels can be achieved through regular exercise, stress management and quality sleep.
Thyroxine (T4) is a thyroid hormone that regulates fat metabolism, growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Low levels may indicate an underactive thyroid with symptoms like weight gain, slowed heart, and increased heart attack risk. High levels may be due to an overactive thyroid with symptoms such as weight loss, neck swelling, tremors, anxiety, and low heat tolerance. Treatment is often needed, but regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress management can help manage symptoms.
Triiodothyronine (T3) helps regulate metabolism, growth, body temperature, and heart rate. High levels are associated with overactive thyroid with symptoms like tremors, neck swelling, and weight loss. In contrast, low levels can result in an underactive thyroid with symptoms like weight gain and low energy. Treatment is often required, but regular exercise, stress management, and balanced nutrition may improve symptoms.
Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is secreted by immune cells and is involved in inflammation and protection against infection. High levels are associated with low blood pressure, fever and muscle aches. Low levels can increase the risk of infectious diseases. Maintaining health through balanced nutrition, sleep, and stress management can help improve symptoms and boost immune system function.